[ Browse by Service Category : Sub-Topics of Organizational/Community/International Services ]
Programs that provide a variety of services and activities that are intended to stimulate the economy; expand employment opportunities; encourage the establishment and growth of commerce and industry; improve the physical infrastructure through redevelopment; support the development, finance, management and preservation of affordable housing; and otherwise enhance the economic development of the community. Many programs focus on impoverished communities and are structured to prevent the outflow of community dollars and to retain and recycle income within the community by investing in the development of local institutions and businesses and thereby creating local jobs, sustaining local services and building a healthier local economy. Also included are the institutions that the financial sector comprises and the services they provide for businesses and the general public.
Programs that provide a central location for the social, cultural, recreational and civic activities that are available to community residents, or which make space available to individuals and groups who want to hold meetings, offer services or otherwise utilize the facility.
Organizations or groups of individuals with common interests or concerns who have joined together on a voluntary basis to provide targeted services for the community; offer information and guidance regarding the planning, implementation and evaluation of needed services; advocate for changes that will have a beneficial effect on the community and its residents; or introduce other ways of improving social, cultural, economic or environmental conditions. Also included are the administrative headquarters of local city and county departments, provincial agencies and federal agencies as well as those that oversee the work of large non-governmental agencies; departments or offices within public and private agencies that are responsible for internal support functions like budget and finance and facility management; and the offices of elected and appointed officials at various levels of government.
Programs that establish and implement an overall plan for the development and upkeep of the built environment in urban and rural areas; and ensure that new construction on public and private property as well as improvements in current structures meet building codes and standards, zoning requirements and the goals and objectives of the master plan. Also included are local offices that are responsible for initiating and overseeing public works projects and ensuring the smooth operation of basic infrastructure services. Activities may include construction, maintenance and repair of roads, bridges, tunnels and other public ways; operation of waterworks, sewage and drainage systems; development and maintenance of channels and other public waterways; construction and operation of public parking facilities; lighting and signposting of public streets; management of waste materials; and other similar projects.
Public and private programs that provide emergency planning, preparedness, mitigation, response, relief and/or recovery services prior to, during and after a major fire, flood, hurricane, earthquake, tornado, tsunami, volcanic eruption, landslide, mudslide, snowstorm, drought, famine, explosion or nuclear accident, the outbreak of civil unrest, or other large-scale emergency of natural or human origin that disrupts the normal functioning of a community; or a localized incident such as a house fire which has made residents homeless. There are four recognized phases of disaster work: preparedness, mitigation, response and recovery. Many community agencies add disaster relief as a phase during response and early recovery.
Programs that accept donations of material goods and services or money to purchase them and which coordinate the distribution of donations to agencies, organizations and disadvantaged community residents.
Programs that provide for the collection, classification, storage, retrieval and dissemination of recorded knowledge for the community. Included are electronic information resources, information and referral programs, information lines, library services, media services, public awareness/education campaigns, research data and rumour control activities.
Programs that promote the interests of a specific trade or profession and provide informal educational and professional development opportunities under the auspices of a membership professional or occupational group or association, often through the medium of journals, periodicals, professional conferences, trade shows and expositions and other similar gatherings. Some of these programs may also establish standards which relate to the qualifications and performance of members and may accept and investigate complaints from the public concerning the practices of members; may maintain a service which refers the public to member individuals, groups, agencies or businesses; and may act as advocates for their own members, for association goals and/or for the recipients of their services.
Programs that strengthen nonprofit organizations, small businesses, government organizations and other groups and enhance their capacity to deliver products and services by providing organizational support in the areas of program planning, development, administration and/or evaluation. The program may also focus on the specific technical facets of operation including board development, conference planning, credentialing, ethics, facility administration, financial management, fundraising, human resources management, information technology management, legal decision making, marketing, networking/relationship building and/or public relations; or help individuals build the professional skills they need to make a positive contribution to the organizations with whom they are employed. Also included may be programs that provide technical assistance and information for individuals on these topics.
Programs that engage in research which involves the investigation, collection and analysis of scientific, demographic and other data with the objective of advancing knowledge in agriculture and the physical, social and life sciences, enhancing our understanding of the major issues which confront our communities and finding solutions to basic human problems. Included are pure basic research (experimental and theoretical work undertaken to acquire new knowledge without looking for long term benefits other than the advancement of knowledge); strategic basic research (experimental and theoretical work undertaken to acquire new knowledge directed into specified broad areas in the expectation of useful discoveries that many be necessary for the solution of recognized practical problems); applied research (original work undertaken primarily to answer a specific question, determine why something failed or succeeded, solve a specific, pragmatic problem or gain better understanding in a particular area); and developmental research (systematic work, using existing knowledge gained from research or practical experience, that is directed to producing new materials, products or devices; installing new processes, systems and services; or improving substantially those already produced or installed).
The above terms and definitions are part of the Taxonomy of Human Services, used here by permission of INFO LINE of Los Angeles.